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Hill Fort in Kolová 

The locality is freely accessible. The best way to reach the site nowadays is from the valley of the Malá Libava stream, through which the Libava Valley Nature Trail leads. You can then climb up the steep slope straight to the site. You can also reach the site from the village of Kolová, after crossing the footbridge over Malá Libava. The old eastern path, which led between the Velká Libava and Malá Libava streams from the road from Cheb to Sokolov, can hardly be traced in the terrain today due to the ongoing construction of a new highway.

The hill fort in Kolová is situated on a marked woody spur above the confluence of the Velká Libava and Malá Libava streams on the site known as Starý zámek (Old Castle) at an elevation of 509 metres. A vast complex spreads across the plateau. The complex includes the hill fort protected by ramparts and deep moats and the outer settlement separated from the rest of the spur by fortification. The remains of the rampart can also found in the southern part of the hill fort. Two old paths lead to the hill fort from the east.

The locality has been well known since the 19th century. Older written resources identify the site with the residence of the knightly family of Kager. A vessel containing some 2,000 or 3,000 silver coins was found on the site in 1827. Unfortunately, the treasure disappeared. Later on, various iron objects, including spurs and stirrups, were found on the site. All the findings were associated with the Thirty Years War. In 1926, Anton Bergmann dug through the inner rampart and the outer moat. Nonetheless, the excavations did not reveal any internal structures. The rampart body was composed of only earth and stones.

A layout plan of the hill fort was published in 1942 and its description emphasized sunken objects on the site (15 in total). More large-scale archaeological research was carried out on site by Olga Pospíchalová from the Cheb Museum in 1966. The acquired primeval findings were attributed to the Cheb group belonging to the Urn Field Culture of the Early Bronze Age. Medieval findings were dated back to the 14th and the first half of the 15th century.

A major discovery was made during archaeological research carried out by the Archaeological Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, with its branch office in Most, and the Cheb Museum (Tomáš Velímský and Pavel Šebesta) in 1986 in one of the sunken objects on the site. The research indicated that the primeval fortified settlement had been re-habited in the second third of the 13th century. The medieval hill fort took advantage of the primeval fortification system, however, without respecting the internal arrangement of the prehistoric fortified settlement. Relics of sunken structures, i.e. earth houses, are scattered in a regular pattern all over the site (mostly along the access way) and one of them was the subject of archaeological research.
A structure destroyed by fire provided information on some of the construction and function-related details, thus facilitating the reconstruction of the dwelling. It is a typical earth house with external dimensions of 420 x 400 centimetres, sunk 120 centimetres below the level of the surrounding terrain and complemented with a neck entry in the northwest. The earth house was formed by log walls erected on a stone base.

Considering the apparent closeness of the locality and the historical core of the town of Kynšperk nad Ohří (aerial distance 1.5km) and the similar time horizon, the mutual relationship of the two localities cannot be ruled out. Moreover, the structures in Kolová can be denoted as a temporary settlement preceding the foundation of the town of Kynšperk nad Ohří.