The village of Chlum Svaté Maří (St. Mary's Wooded Hillock) is first mentioned in 1341. Although first settlement in the area dates back much further. A statue of Virgin Mary and a wooden chapel stood on the site in the 13th century and they were replaced by a stone Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene around the year 1400. The pilgrims coming to Chlum were taken care of by the members of the Order of the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star who founded a settlement near the church.
The miraculous site and the mysteries intertwined with its foundation and earliest years of existence gave rise to many legends that were to clarify enigmatic circumstances and events. Thus, legends of the appearance of the miraculous Madonna, about the highway robbers in the wooded hillock, and of the local church bells were conceived. Pilgrimages and fairs became very popular after the Thirty Years War and the Prague Archbishop, who was also the Grandmaster of the Order, Jan Bedřich Valdštejn, raised the local parish to a provostry and thereby, triggered the construction of a new church and pilgrimage grounds. The Baroque complex designed by Kryštof Dienzenhofer was completed in 1728.
In 1960, the municipality was renamed to Chlum nad Ohří and it was renamed back to its original name after 30 long years. Chlum Svaté Maří has been and most probably will be a popular pilgrimage site not only for religious people from all over the Czech Republic.