Žlutice - Urban Monument Zone
Žlutice (German: Luditz), a town distinguished by Hussite traditions, rich history and cultural monuments, is situated on a slope rising above a valley on the middle course of the picturesque Střela River clenched between Dlouhý (Long Hill), Hlínovec (Soil Hill) and Nevděk (Ingratitude) hills in the close vicinity of the majestic Vladař Hill. The town was probably founded during Slavonic colonization as a trading station lying on an important route from Prague to Cheb. The town is first denoted in written records in 1186 when it was in the possession of the monastery in Kladruby. In the period of reign of King Charles IV, the town already had a well-organized municipal administration, which issued deeds and kept town records. In economic terms, the town relied on salt trading and linen drapery.
In the course of the Hussite Wars, the town and its environs repeatedly witnessed fighting armies. The town lived through its best years during the Renaissance period after 1515. It was also the time when one of the masterpieces of the 16th century art of illumination was created – Žlutický kancionál (Žlutice Hymn Book), the facsimile of which may be found at the town museum. After the end of the Thirty Years War, the town was subject to gradual Germanization throughout the 17th and 18th century. The period of prosperity of the town was ended by a massive fire in 1761.
The town regained importance after becoming the seat of the judicial and political district (1850 - 1948) and with the construction of the railway (1897). The quadrate Velké náměstí (Big Square) is the natural centre of the town. The historical centre of the town with remnants of Gothic fortification and underground multiple-floor cellars (cellarage image 66 kB) are a monument zone. The Column of the Holy Trinity is erected in the middle of the town square. The busiest town street leads from the lower part of the town square to the Church of St. Peter and Paul, which belongs among the most valuable architectural monuments in the district of Karlovy Vary.